Medical abortion is a non-surgical method of terminating pregnancy using pharmacological drugs. Medical abortion allows to end artificially a pregnancy at an early stage. In advertising campaigns, it is called safe, but the drugs have a systemic effect on the woman's body, which leads to the death and rejection of the fetus, which cannot pass completely without a trace.
Brief description of the procedure
Medical termination of pregnancy is carried out using oral potent medications - mifepristone and Postinor. In the early stages (up to 7 weeks), the drugs reduce the sensitivity of progesterone receptors in the tissues of the reproductive organs.
Under the influence of mifepristone (600 mg), the fertilized egg detaches from the child's place and dies due to lack of nutrition. The next stage is the expulsion of the dead embryo. Medical termination of pregnancy is completed with the drug Misoprostol. It is given 2 days after taking mifepristone.
The drug stimulates the contraction of the walls of the uterus and the opening of its cervix. The embryo comes out. At the same time, unpleasant effects are noted:
· pulling pains in lower abdomen;
· increasing body temperature to subfebrile and febrile (+ 38 ° C) values;
· febrile symptoms;
· dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea);
· bleeding of varying intensity.
Termination of pregnancy by medications must be done under the doctor’s control. For this, the patient can be admitted in a hospital to monitor the woman's condition. If she refuses to be admitted to a hospital, the woman must have contact numbers for consultation with a doctor
At the third appointment (after 10-14 days), the doctor examines the patient to prevent the risk of infection and necrosis of the remains of the
embryo in case of an incomplete abortion. The doses of medications recommended by WHO are:
· Mifepristone - 200 mg;
· Misoprostol - 400 mcg.
However, in Ukraine, the French method is used - Mifepristone (600 mg) and then Misoprostol (400 mcg) during pregnancy up to 49 days, counting from the end of the last menstruation.
But even if the dosage is followed, medical termination of pregnancy can proceed with varying effectiveness:
· complete abortion;
· incomplete abortion;
· the pregnancy is preserved.
Ineffective medical abortion requires surgical termination of pregnancy or scraping out the remains of the embryo. According to statistics, medical abortion in 8% of cases does not lead to the expected result. Medical abortion is an inexpensive and effective (98%) method, but it also has certain limitations for its carrying out.
Contraindications to medical abortion
Medical termination of pregnancy has the following contraindications:
· age under 18 and over 35 years;
· presence of infectious, systemic and autoimmune diseases;
· blood coagulation disorder;
· taking steroid and anti-inflammatory drugs;
· gastrointestinal tract diseases;
· pathologies of kidneys, liver, heart and blood vessels;
· predisposition to allergic reactions;
· use of oral contraceptives or an intrauterine spiral 3 months prior to the abortion;
· pregnancy in the late term;
· ectopic pregnancy;
· severe pulmonary diseases;
· mental disorders, epilepsy.
Such a number of contraindications makes uncontrolled use of medications for medical abortion very
only in a clinic under the supervision of an experienced specialist. Before deciding where to perform such an abortion, you should inquire about the availability of licenses and permits from a doctor and a medical center.
Complications after the procedure
According to WHO research, complications after medical abortion are most often found in women who did not follow the recommendations on the frequency of visits to the doctor. Among the complications, the following are noted:
· Clostridium sordellii infection of the cervix;
· decrease in immune defense forces;
· side effects from drugs with a low degree of purification;
· intense bleeding and severe pain syndrome;
· menstrual cycle disorder;
· allergic reactions or toxic shock.
To avoid the risk of developing complications after a medical abortion, it is not recommended:
· do hard physical work, lift weights;
· visit a bath, sauna, solarium;
· avoid sexual contact for the period recommended by the doctor.
If medical recommendations are followed carefully, the risk of complications is minimal. During the entire period of use of pharmaceutical abortions in the world, 10 women died from complications. In all patients, the procedure was performed in violation of the methodology and without taking into account contraindications.